Saturday, March 14, 2020

Standard Lesson Plan Format for ESL Teachers

Standard Lesson Plan Format for ESL Teachers Teaching English, like teaching any subject, requires lesson plans. Many books and curricula provide advice on teaching English learning materials. However, most ESL teachers like to mix up their classes by providing their own  lesson plans and activities. Sometimes, teachers are required to create their own lesson plans when teaching ESL or EFL at international institutions that are scattered throughout the world. Develop your own lesson plans and activities by using a basic template. Standard Lesson Plan Format Generally speaking, a lesson plan has four specific parts. These can be repeated throughout the lesson, but its important to follow the outline: Warm-upPresentFocus on specificsUsage in a wider context Warm-Up   Use a warm-up to get the brain thinking in the right direction. The warm-up should include the target grammar/function for the lesson. Here are a few ideas: Ask small talk questions about the weekend for a lesson on the simple past.Discuss a hypothetical situation for a lesson focusing on conditionals.Challenge students to describe others in class when working towards building descriptive vocabulary.   Presentation The presentation focus on  the learning objectives of the lesson. This is the teacher-guided section of the lesson. You might: Explain grammar at the whiteboard.Show a short video to introduce a topic of discussion.Present new vocabulary, making sure to provide lots of  contexts.Present written work for a class discussion of structure. Controlled Practice Controlled practice allows for close observation to gauge whether the learning objectives are understood. Controlled practice activities include:​ Gap-fill exercises on tense conjugation.Complete-the-sentence exercises to encourage specifically-written formulas.Reading and listening comprehension activities.Language function practice on specific activities such as apologizing, negotiating, and thanking. Free Practice Free practice allows students to take control of their own language learning. These activities should encourage students to explore language with activities such as: Class debatesCreating role-plays and acting them out for othersGames focusing on communication skillsEssay writing During the free practice section, take note of common mistakes. Use feedback to help everyone, rather than focus on individual students.   This lesson plan format is popular for many reasons, including: Students have a number of chances to learn a concept through various means.Students have plenty of time to practice.Teachers can give detailed instruction, or students can deduce structures and learning points through practice.The standard lesson plan format provides structure.The lesson provides for variation over the course of 60 to 90 minutes.This lesson plan format moves from teacher-centered to student-centered learning. Variations on the Lesson Plan Format Theme In order to keep this standard lesson plan format from becoming boring, it is important to remember that there are a number of variations that can be applied to the various segments of the lesson plan format. Warm-up:  Students might arrive late, tired, stressed or otherwise distracted to class. In order to get their attention, its best to open with a warm-up activity. The warm-up can be as simple as telling a short story or asking students questions. The warm-up can also be a more thought-out activity, such as playing a song in the background or drawing an elaborate picture on the board. While its fine to start a lesson with a simple How are you, its much better to tie your warm-up into the theme of the lesson. Presentation: The presentation can take a variety of forms. Your presentation should be clear and straightforward to help students understand new grammar and forms. Here are a few suggestions on how to present new materials to the class: Reading selectionSoliciting students knowledge about a specific pointTeacher-centered explanationListening selectionShort videoStudent presentation The presentation should include the main meat of the lesson. For example, If you are working on phrasal verbs, make the presentation by reading something thats peppered with phrasal verbs. Controlled practice: This  section of the lesson provides students with direct feedback on their comprehension of the task at hand. Generally, a controlled practice involves some type of exercise.  Ã‚  Controlled practice should help the student focus on the main task and provide them with feedback - either from the teacher or the other students. Free practice: This integrates the focus structure, vocabulary, and functional words and phrases into students overall language use. Free practice exercises often encourage students to use the target language structures in: Small group discussionsWritten work (paragraphs and essays)Listening comprehension practiceGames The most important aspect of free practice is that students should be encouraged to integrate language learned into larger structures. This requires more of a stand-off approach to teaching. Its often useful to circulate around the room and take notes. Students should be allowed to make more mistakes during this part of the lesson. Utilizing Feedback Feedback allows students to check their understanding of the lessons topic and can be done quickly at the end of the class by asking students questions about the target structures. Another approach is to have students discuss the target structures in small groups, once again giving students the chance to improve understanding on their own. In general, it is important to use this lesson plan format to facilitate students English learning. The more opportunities for student-centered learning, the more students acquire language skills for themselves.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Cultural report on workplace bullying in Israel Essay

Cultural report on workplace bullying in Israel - Essay Example The problem Ayoko et al (2003) states that lack of proper employee and multicultural management leads to workplace bullies. This is normally characterized by name-calling, taunting, teasing or even sexual harassment. The situation is much worse if the company or organization’s management is involved in the bullying of employees because the affected employees have no one to run to for help. It also reduces the chances of such a vice fading away. Such a case of management involvement in bullying employee has been reported in this textile company. Employees especially those of Australian origin have reported that they are being bullied by the company management. Some of the employees have reported that they have been called names while some of them have reported constant taunting and teasing. According to Brodsky (1976), bullying makes the workplace unbearable for bullied workers. It also impacts negatively on their productivity. This is to say that bullying kills their morale an d motivation. Bullying of employees by company management makes workers to develop a negative attitude towards the company and hence they put little or no efforts to see to it that its production levels increase. Wiedmer (2011) explains that when bullied, workers who are innovative in nature and those who are good at identifying new markets go mute. This means the company is directly loosing a lot as a result of its discriminative management. Apart from affecting employees, the negative culture has also impacts negatively on the management practice. For example, it makes the management to loose the respect of employees. This means that the rate of taking instructions reduces because the employees are no longer willing to co-operate with the management. Some could also be on a revenge mission to see to it that the company records poor performance so as to taint the image of the oppressive management. Bullying taints the credibility of the management. Crawford (1997) explains that emp loyees loose usually confidence in a management that participates in jokes that are racially and even sexually offensive. According to De Dreu (2007), bullying of employees by management can divide the management along racial lines. For example though this textile company is Australian based, not all its management is of Australian or Israeli origin. Some of its members therefore feel bad to see their fellow citizens being bullied or discriminated by a section of the management. Alternative Solutions Alternative solutions to bullying as an evil culture of bullying touch on the management as well as the employees. Such measures will ensure that the culture does not simply shift from the management to the employees or become a collaboration between sections of the two. First, the company should create a company culture that not only accepts but also appreciates the variations that every employee brings to the workplace. Ashforth (1994) states that the new culture should enable the man agement as well as the employees to recognize, appreciate and most importantly, to respect variations between cultures. The company should also develop an amalgamated culture from all the cultures represented in the company. Saam (2010) explains that such a unifying culture will form a common basis of conduct for all the employees irrespective of their cultural backgrounds. The company also should develop employment policies then

Monday, February 10, 2020

Work-based learning (at a Law ftrm) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Work-based learning (at a Law ftrm) - Essay Example Work based learning merits intending candidates to maintain a set of evidence that demonstrates that a professional can meet the standard requirement of learning outcome. They are assisted by seniors who called upon intermittently during the WBL period. Work based learning is categorized as an important phase in the transition of students from educational work as professionals in practical workplaces. It is stated by Fink, et al, (2007) that work based learning trains the students to transit successfully from school to work1. They further elaborate work based as: â€Å"Work-Based Learning is an approach which focuses upon the practical utility of learning and is therefore directly relevant to learners and their work environment. A WBL approach to learning acknowledges that learning can take place in a variety of situations and settings, and is not restricted to that developed through the classroom or lecture theatre.†2 It means that work based learning is a tool that is employ ed for training students to become qualified professionals. They have pre-utilized the skill of working in a professional based environment and are ready to handle different situations in any workplace. Knowledge, work and learning, all come together when a student is allowed to learn through work based learning approach. ... ifferent as compared to working of employees as it is said, â€Å"Work-based learning needs to be distinguished from work place learning, that form of learning that occurs on a day-to-day basis at work as employees acquire new skills to develop new approaches to solving problems. No formal education recognition normally accrues to such learning, whether or not it is organised systematically.†4 Word based learning for students is a sort of education that students obtain while being at work. They gain practical knowledge that they can implement while being in a professional environment after completion of their academic qualifications. Work based learning accommodates the students to understand working procedures while gaining their education. The universities and organizations together have formed learning experiences for students with the support of work based learning as described under: â€Å"Work-based learning is the term being used to describe a class of university progr ammes that bring together universities and work organizations to create new learning opportunities in workplaces†.5 In my point of view, work based learning is quite crucial in academic life as it facilitates the students to have an idea of the workplace which they wish or are going to work in their future. In addition, working at the workplace is accommodate in facilitating the learners with knowledge as Stephen Billet says, â€Å"as individuals engage in social practices, such as work, they engage in an ongoing process of knowledge construction and refinement.†6 I have been working at Trinity Solicitors LLP since my second year of University. My intention was to have a couple of weeks work experience, after which I was offered to stay longer if I desired to. Of course since then I have been going to

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Eriksons stages of psychosocial development Essay Example for Free

Eriksons stages of psychosocial development Essay 1. Carl Roger’s Humanistic theory is based upon the idea that everyone has the potential to make a contribution to society and be a good and likeable person if his or her needs are fulfilled. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers led the humanistic theory movement and it was Maslow who developed the â€Å"pyramid of needs†. Sigmund Freud’s Humanistic theory is based upon the idea that everyone has the potential to make a contribution to society and be a good and likeable person – if their needs are fulfilled. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers led the humanistic theory movement and it was Maslow who developed the â€Å"pyramid of needs†. Sigmund Freud believed that people have three levels of awareness, which are the conscious, preconscious, and the unconscious. Freud developed a detailed theory on how our own thoughts and feelings affect our actions. It is known as Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory. 2. The five basic traits that most describe differences in personality are Neuroticism A tendency to easily experience unpleasant emotions such as anxiety, anger, or depression. Extroversion Energy, surgency, and the tendency to seek stimulation and the company of others. Agreeableness A tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others. Conscientiousness A tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement. Openness to experience appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, and unusual ideas, imaginative and curious. Erik Erikson maintained that personality develops in a predetermined order. Instead of focusing on sexual development, however, he was interested in how children socialize and how this affects their sense of self. He saw personality as developing throughout the lifetime and looked at identity crises at the focal point for each stage of human development. These eight stages were Trust Versus Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. Inferiority, Identity vs. Role Confusion, Intimacy vs. Isolation, Generativist vs. Stagnation, Ego Integrity vs. Despair.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

The Right To Die Essay example -- essays research papers fc

The Right to Die Modern medical technology has made it possible to extend the lives of many far beyond when they would have died in the past. Death, in modern times, often ensures a long and painful fall where one loses control both physically and emotionally. Some individuals embrace the time that modern technology buys them; while others find the loss of control overwhelming and frightening. They want their loved ones to remember them as they were not as they have become. Some even elect death to avoid burdens of lingering on. They also seek assistance in doing so from medicine. The demands for assisted suicide and euthanasia are increasing (Kass 17). These issues raise many questions, legal and ethical. Although neither assisted suicide and euthanasia are legal, many people believe they should be. A great number of those people may never be faced with the decision, but knowing the option would be there is a comfort (Jaret 46). For those who will encounter the situation of loved ones on medication, being treated by physicians, sometimes relying on technical means to stay alive arises a great moral conflict. I wish to explore this topic on ethical, not legal issues. Do people have a right to choose death? More in particular, are euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide morally legitimate? Euthanasia involves a death that is intended to benefit the person who dies, and requires a final act by some other person, for example, a doctor. Physician-assisted suicide, which requires a final act by the patient, can also be undertaken for the good of that patient. The essential point is that both involve intentionally ending a human life (Emanuel 521). But how, some ask, can we ever allow people to intentionally end human lives (even their own lives) without degrading human life? How, others ask, can we simply prevent people from deciding when to end their own lives without denying people the freedom so essential to the value of a human life? As these questions suggests, the debate about the right to choose death may appear to present a stand-off between people who endorse life's true value, and those who think life's value depends on the interests, judgments, and choices of the person whose life it is. Through self identification individuals evaluate their own lives and its quality through their own values and belief systems. In order to maintain human dig... ...' dignity. Euthanasia, for some people, may be seen as a more humane way to die. Bibliography Emanuel, Esekiel and linda L. Emanuel, "The promise of a Good Death," The Lancet, May 16, 1998, v351, n9114, pp521-529. Meier, Diane E., Carol-Ann Emmons, Sylvan Wallenstein, timothy Quill, Sean Morrison and Christine Cassel, " A National Survey of Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia in the United States," The New England Journal of Medicine, April 23, 1998, v338, n17, pp1193- 1203. Brock, Dan W., "Palliative Options of Last Resort," JAMA, December 17, 1997, v178, v23, pp2099-2104. Jaret, Peter, "Can There Be Comfort and Dignity at the End of Your Life?" Family Circle, November 18, 1997, v110, n16, pp42-46. "Last Rights," The Economist, June 21, 1997, v343, n8022, pp21-24. Gletzer, Randi, "Life/Death Decisions," American Health For Women, March 1997, v16, n2, pp80-85. Kass, Leon R. and Nelson Lund, "Courting Death: Assisted Suicide, Doctors and the Law," Commentary, December 1996, v102, n6, pp17- 28. Outerbridge, Daved E. and Alan R. Hersh, M.D., "Easing the Passage," HarperCollins, New York, NY, 1991.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Aldi case studies Essay

QUESTION 1 Aldi is a leading retailer with over 8,000 stores worldwide. They operate a typical store sells around 700 products, compared to approximately 25,000 items stock at traditional supermarket. Since opening its first store in 1913, Aldi has successfully established itself as one of the most trustworthy retailers in the international business market. In industry business, company were achieved their competitive advantage in operating management based on competing a difference, competing cost and competing a response. ALDI have a different way of their services in retail shop industry. Physically, grocery shop is quite common but they achieve a competitive advantage through a services attributes in retail industry. ALDI‘s strategy lead to competitive advantage thorugh their brand that associated with value for money. Operating manager in ALDI operates an effective plan in order to emphasizing their product and services that will influence potential value to the customer. Its emphasis is on providing high quality products and excellent value for customers. As simply, ALDI have provided the customer an efficient way to shop. As we know, customers want the best quality products at the lowest possible prices. With such tough competition it is vital for organizations to understand what their customers want. As a reputable retailer, ALDI understands that its customers want value for money but do not want to compromise on quality. ALDI’s strategy revolves around providing good quality groceries for low price. For ALDI quality is important that guarantees product sold with a no questions asked money back guarantee. Based on case, ALDI achieves its low cost strategy but still maintain to produce quality products. They applied a several methods such as buys large quantities of item from trusted suppliers, taking advantage of quantity discounts and economies of scale. ALDI did not waste their cost towards shelving, locations and warehouse because they utilized an effectively resources. Otherwise, ALDI have a quick response in term of delivery product because of Just in Time (JIT). The staffs in ALDI operate the checkout as well as restock items by replacing pallets and this is quite flexible. They arrange a excellent scheduling of their performance such as minimize overhead cost. QUESTION 2 ALDI is a retailer that offers a low cost strategy as one of its strength in retail industry in Germany. Even though pertain a low cost strategy, there is no such things that ALDI offer a low standard of products. They could maintain to providing a good service quality because they succeed in customized the utilities of its resources capacity. ALDI using a time based management that required them to meet changing market and customer needs. Regardless of competitive strategy, quality is important to create a value to pay. It means, customers did not had regret buying our products and keep to buy it that similar principle used by ALDI that guarantees product sold with a no questions asked money back guarantee. Other than, a good service is one of a part of quality. It is because, services such as meet customer want on time, readily available and convenience stores could satisfy a customer on their routine daily grocery shop.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Do Curfews Effect Teens - 951 Words

Harry Dent Liz Wilfong ENG 101-036 April 28, 2015 Do Curfews Effect Teens? A lot of teenagers argue that obeying curfews really affects them because they get in troubles. Curfews do not guarantee that teenagers will fully stay out of trouble. Teen curfews do not reduce or take away from juvenile crime (â€Å"Teen Curfews Should Not Be Supported â€Å"). Some teens feel that when a parent sets a curfew, they don’t fully trust their kids all the way. Whether teenagers have a curfew or not, they can get in just as much trouble in the day time as they can get into in the night time. When it comes to curfews, people tend to be for or against them. â€Å"A curfew is a law, regulation, or ordinance that forbids particular people or particular classes of people from being outdoors in public places at certain specified times of the day† (Batten). With curfews being in place, this makes it harder for some teens to fully get an experience of a night life. With the way this generation is set up, some parties start around eight o’ clock and at twelve o’ clock. Most teenagers want to go get something to eat or chill around with their friends after the party, so really they would not get into the house until after two or three o’clock. Really, curfews are just a way for parents to say they don’t want their kids out of their sight except for a certain amount time. There is really nothing that proves that curfews reduce crime and protect teenagers from getting in less or no trouble. There are a lot ofShow MoreRelatedEffectiveness Of Teen Curfews1544 Words   |  7 PagesEffectiveness of Teen Curfews Meridee Jones Cecil, a mother of two teenage boys, pronounced that she would undertake a new parenting tactic, and lay the curfew time in the teenager’s hands. Her son, Tom was a freshman in high school and often lingered around older friends who could drive. Because of this, Tom’s parents decided to teach him responsibility by having him appoint his own curfew. Meridee said, â€Å"It seemed to work like a charm. Tom even set some of his curfews for before midnight. He cameRead MoreEssay on Crime and Parents1345 Words   |  6 Pages Do curfews keep teens out of trouble? Even though curfews may keep the children safe, they do not keep them out of trouble because there is no solid evidence that youth curfews lower the rate of juvenile crime and teens are going to do what they want to do. Nationwide more than 80 percent of juvenile offenses take place between nine in the morning and ten at night, outside most curfews. The problem with curfews is they do not work and people should stop pretending like they do. If parents thinkRead MoreDo Curfews Keep Teens Out of Trouble? Essay1085 Words   |  5 Pagesdifferent curfews set for their children, based on the individual level of responsibility and trust levels. Some local government decides to set their own curfews, to keep teens off the streets at night and out of trouble. Many people argue whether this actually solves anything, or is even legal to do, since it is taking away a piece of teenager’s freedom. Although there are many good and bad points to enforcing curfews, they should be less enforc ed because they do not necessarily keep teens out ofRead MoreEssay about Do Curfew Keep Teens Out of Trouble708 Words   |  3 PagesEven with a curfew teens will do what they want to do. If that means sneaking out, lying or skipping school or etc. sneaking out gives a teen a thrill and like they are invincible. That just makes them more likely to do much more dangerous stuff. Also, having a curfew just adds stress on a teen, because they will freak out about running late and traffic causing them to be late. If anyone says that kids will be too scared to sneak out, well wouldnt they be to break an actual law? Does curfew really keepRead More Curfews: Whats the Point? Essay906 Words   |  4 PagesCurfews: Whats the Point? The 14th amendment of the United States Constitution states that any state shall not â€Å"deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws (Legal). However, many cities and states in the US currently enforce curfew laws that deny young teens under the age of 18 their right to be in public places or to drive after certain hours. These laws are punishing minors forRead MoreTeenage Curfew Essay705 Words   |  3 Pagesteenage curfew is ineffective and useless. Many people argue that the curfews are necessary because it will keep young people out of trouble. They also say that teenagers are more likely to get in trouble late than they would during daylight. Teens are looked at as the age group that causes the most trouble, and society targets them when it comes to matter for crime, however many people believe that teens are responsible for a large percentage of crimes and that having a curfew in effect will helpRead MoreAre There True Benefits to a Curfew?1153 Words   |  5 Pagesminor could stay outdoors. The one and only way to avert such unlawful effects, is by the government taking part by enforcing a curfew. A curfew is basi cally an order issued to the public or in some cases to a certain group of people, to stay indoors after a certain time given. A government or a mayor of a city can enforce this act but even your own parents as well may apply this as a rule to their own children. Usually, the curfew is enforced for many reasons but I will be stating the ones I believeRead MoreAre Curfews Fair to Juveniles?840 Words   |  4 PagesAre Curfews Fair to Juveniles? Cities across the United States have imposed curfews on juveniles for many years. Teen curfew laws restrict the hours that juveniles may be on the streets or in public places at night (Sutphen and Ford). Some people consider curfews infringing on people’s constitutional rights. Curfews are hard to implement by law enforcement, and, in fact, take law enforcement away from more serious crimes. More crimes occur during daytime hours and more children are victimizedRead MoreDisadvantages of Teenage Curfews777 Words   |  3 Pagessociety, some parents create curfews for their children while others allow their children to create their own curfews. Numerous people argue that setting curfews for teenagers help them refrain from taking part in mischief and help them to develop into superior adults. The remaining group of people state that curfews would make teenagers rebel. Teenage curfews produce many different positive and negative views in parents and teenagers. Different opinions on curfews are expressed through parentsRead MoreDisadvantages of Teenage Curfews1 138 Words   |  5 Pagessociety, some parents create curfews for their children while others allow their children to create their own curfews. Numerous people argue that setting curfews for teenagers help them refrain from taking part in mischief and help them to develop into superior adults. The remaining group of people state that curfews would make teenagers rebel. Teenage curfews produce many different positive and negative views in parents and teenagers. Different opinions on curfews are expressed through parents